Η Μονή Εσφιγμένου ιδρύθηκε στα μέσα του 10ου αιώνα, ενώ κατά την παράδοση κτίστηκε τον 5ο αιώνα, από τον αυτοκράτορα Θεοδόσιο Β’ και την αδελφή του Πουλχερία. The Agarine pirates robbed it numerous times and during the attacks of 1533 and 1634, it was completely destroyed.
The Kathalikon of the Monastery, which commemorates the Ascension of the Lord, was built by Abbot Theodoritos in 1806-1810. Among the relics of the Monastery, the ones standing out are a large piece from the scene of Napoleon the Great, a gift from Patriarch Gregory V and the so-called cross of Pulcheria.
The library has 372 manuscripts and over 6,000 books.
The Monastery of Esfigmenou occupies the eighteenth place in the hierarchy of athonite monasteries. It has been functioning communally since 1797 with the sigillium of Patriarch Gregory V.
66 monks are currently living in the Monastery, while another 31 monks are its dependents.